YAKIMA, Wash. The efforts, still largely local, have been fueled by the opening, or imminent opening, of retail marijuana stores in Washington and in Colorado, as well as by recent legal opinions that have supported such bans in some states.
Idaho has officially declared its opposition to any new liberalizing of marijuana laws. The 2013 state Legislature passed a resolution declaring its opposition to legalization of marijuana or any medicinal or other use.
At stake are hundreds of millions of dollars in tax revenues from marijuana sales promised by legalizations supporters and now eagerly anticipated by state governments that could be sharply reduced if local efforts to ban such sales expand.
But the fight also signals a larger battle over the future of legal marijuana: whether it will be a national industry providing near-universal access, or a patchwork system with isolated islands of mainly urban sales.
To some partisans, the debate has echoes to the post-Prohibition era, when so-called dry towns emerged in some states in response to legalized alcohol. At some point we have to put some boundaries, said Rosetta Horne, a nondenominational Christian church minister here in Yakima, at a public hearing on Tuesday night where she urged the City Council to enact a permanent ban on marijuana businesses.
In states from Louisiana to Indiana that are discussing decriminalizing marijuana, Republican opponents of relaxing the drug laws are finding themselves loosely allied with Democratic skeptics.
Voices in the Obama administration concerned about growing access have joined anti-drug crusaders like Patrick Kennedy, a Democratic former U.S. representative from Rhode Island, who contends that the potential health risks of marijuana have not been adequately explored, especially for juveniles and who has written and spoken widely about his own struggles with alcohol and prescription drugs.
In some ways I think the best thing that could have happened to the anti-legalization movement was legalization, because I think it shows people the ugly side, said Kevin Sabet, a former drug policy adviser to President Barack Obama and the executive director and a founder with Kennedy of Smart Approaches to Marijuana. The group, founded last year, supports removing criminal penalties for using marijuana, but opposes full legalization, and is working with local organizations around the nation to challenge legalization.
If legalization advocates just took a little bit more time and were not so obsessed with doing this at a thousand miles per hour, he added, it might be better. Instead, they are helping precipitate a backlash.
In Washington, the Yakima County Commission has already said that it plans to ban marijuana businesses in the unincorporated areas outside Yakima city. Clark County, Washington, is considering a ban on recreational sales that would affect the huge marijuana market in Portland, just across the Columbia River. And the states second most populous county, Pierce, just south of Seattle, said last month it would bar recreational businesses from opening.
Here in Yakima, an agricultural city of wine and apples, population 93,000, each side in Tuesdays often emotional two-hour council meeting talked about risk.
Proponents of the ban said they feared that neighborhoods and cherished patterns of life would be harmed by recreational marijuana businesses. Opponents, including some marijuana business license applicants, warned of economic harm and legal liability if the ban passed.
By the evenings end, the vote was not close 6-1 for a complete prohibition of marijuana businesses.
Yakimas course, council members said, was bolstered by the states attorney general, Bob Ferguson, who this month issued a nonbinding legal opinion that local governments could ban recreational marijuana under I-502, the initiative legalizing recreational marijuana that Washington voters approved in 2012.
Critics said Fergusons reasoning flew against the intent of the law, which says that marijuana must be available to all state residents.
But even before his opinion, resistance was growing. Across Washington, local moratoriums or bans covering more than 1.5 million people about 1 in 5 residents were in place by mid-January, according to a pro-legalization research group in Seattle, the Center for the Study of Cannabis and Social Policy.