The effects of cattle theft did not fully dawn on rancher Candace Owen until she got a call in 2010 from a fellow rancher. It was a heads-up alerting her that some of her cows were missing their calves.
The clue that something was amiss: Each cow was tight-bagged, the term ranchers use to describe cows with sagging udders that have not been milked.
Owen soon discovered that as many as 25 calves had been taken from her ranch in Red Bluff, Calif. She had been hit by cattle rustlers, characters that for most people exist only in history books and cowboy movies.
Cattle rustling, it turns out, has never gone away. And its on the rise in California and nationwide.
Its a terrible crime when you steal someones livelihood, said Owen, whose husbands family has been ranching in and around Tehama County for generations.
Last year, 1,317 head of cattle were reported stolen or missing in California, said Greg Lawley, chief of the states Bureau of Livestock Identification. Thats a 22 percent increase from what was reported before the recession.
We assume this is an outgrowth of cattle price rise, Lawley said.
NOT JUST IN CALIFORNIA
In 2012, more than 10,400 head of cattle and horses were reported missing or stolen to the Texas and Southwestern Cattle Raisers Association a 36 percent increase from 2010.
In many instances, a cow can sell easily for $1,000. Cattle prices have been increasing steadily, with prices hitting record highs in 2011 and 2012, according to the USDAs National Agricultural Statistics Service.
The thing with stealing livestock, and especially cattle, is you can get 100 percent of its value, especially with unbranded animals, Lawley said.
Unlike the old days, when stolen cattle were herded on horseback, todays rustlers use trailers and trucks. The speed of transport means you can load up a gooseneck trailer full of cattle and be in Colorado 24 hours later, Lawley said.
In Owens case, an investigation by the Bureau of Livestock Identification concluded that the thieves gathered at night and herded the calves by horseback. Both cows and calves were herded into trailers.
They separated the calves from the cows and dumped the cows at different places in the countryside.
Owen has since had some of the stolen cattle returned. A witness identified the likely suspect in that theft, but there was not enough evidence to prosecute, Owen said.
In cattle ranching, it is well known that cattle theft is typically an inside job, said John Suther, senior investigator with the Bureau of Livestock Identification.
Theyre neighbors. Theyre employees hired men, said Suther. Its a specialized business, so people with knowledge of the cattle industry are the ones stealing these animals.
INVESTIGATORS SPREAD THIN
Suther has the herculean task of being the only cattle theft investigator for the whole state. He has to travel thousands of miles from his home in Shasta County, Calif., to do his job.
The state has roughly 3 million head of cattle. Of those, about 575,000 cows are beef or range cattle, and the rest are dairy cows. Suther mainly investigates the former, since dairy cow theft is relatively rare.
Although he does not carry a firearm, Suther has the right to pull over and inspect vehicles used in transporting cattle. A lot of what he does is brand inspections. The bureau registers 11,000 brands every year.
Last year, the bureau returned 1,604 cattle to ranchers. The value recovered was $1.4 million.
The cattle theft problem is likely larger than people think it is, Suther said. We feel cattle theft is completely under-reported.
Suther said that many ranchers hesitate to report cattle stolen because they do not want to be targeted again.
Other ranchers believe there is a stigma attached to being a victim of theft. Many simply assume they will lose 2 percent of their cattle and wont investigate until unless the number of stolen cattle is quite large, he said.
Central Valley cattle rancher Mark Beck has had four steers stolen this year from his ranches in Sacramento, San Joaquin and Calaveras counties.
The thieves loaded them by roadways where there is easy access, he said.
Sometimes they shoot the cattle and butcher them where they find them.