When U.S. Surgeon General Luther Terry released a groundbreaking report in 1964 linking smoking to cancer, the disease was a whispered word and a likely death sentence.
In the decades since, researchers and doctors have worked to stamp out the many diseases known as cancer. And today, the fight against cancer stands at a place of unprecedented progress, with research yielding new drugs, more knowledge about cancer-causing genes, better prevention and improved public awareness.
Dr. Otis W. Brawley, chief medical officer for the American Cancer Society, estimates that more than 1 million American cancer deaths have been averted during the last 20 years.
In 1991 ... a lot of things that we learned about cancer actually started kicking in, Brawley said. It takes a long time to apply them, and then once you start applying them, you finally, finally ... get to a point where things start getting better.
The society was founded in 1913 by New York businessmen and doctors and has become the largest nongovernmental source of cancer research funding. It also provides patient support and focuses on public awareness.
Progress has occurred on all fronts, including disease prevention, detection strategies, surgery, radiation therapy and systemic treatments, according to Dr. William Nelson, director of the Baltimore-based Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins.
For progress to continue, innovation like this cannot be stifled by policy change, said Andy Hill, a Republican state senator in Washingtons 45th district, just east of Seattle, who was diagnosed with lung cancer in 2009 at age 46.
My hope is that when my kids are 50, 60, 70, and theyre diagnosed with cancer, they do a test and take a pill to vanquish it, he said.
Given recent advances, Hills vision seems increasingly possible.
A NEW WAVE
According to researchers, new knowledge about what goes wrong in cells and the study of specific genes is creating more pinpointed treatments. Further, the development of anti-cancer drugs has taken off and become more cost-effective, making it easier to get new drugs approved, Nelson said.
As we have defined the processes that are involved in a cell becoming cancerous, weve actually started redefining cancer, Brawley said. Weve gone from a 19th-century definition of cancer to a 21st-century one.
That will help us fine-tune our treatments even further, he added.
Under this new definition, a patients specific type of cancer will be less important than which gene causes it. Doctors can identify the genes that are acting up and use targeted drugs to block their activity, Brawley said. Some such drugs are already being successfully used.
Chronic myeloid leukemia, breast cancer and prostate cancer are among the diseases that have responded well to these gene-targeting treatments, said Dr. Ruben A. Mesa, deputy director of the Mayo Clinic Cancer Center and chair of the division of hematology and medical oncology at the Mayo Clinic Arizona in suburban Phoenix.
Really, it is a tremendous era of trying to individualize cancer care, Mesa said. Were at the beginning of the new wave.
A NEW KIND OF SURVIVOR
Hill, the Washington state senator, was among the first patients to ride that wave. After his cancer spread to both lungs and his lymph nodes, Hill found a trial drug called crizotinib that could target his specific gene mutation.
It was really miraculous. Within a week, most of my symptoms had disappeared, and within three weeks I was jogging again, he said.
Hill is an example of an increasingly common new breed of cancer survivor: one who may not be cured but can live with the disease.
Im not able to say that were going to have a cure, Brawley said. My vision of cancer in the future is that many of these diseases are going to become much more like diabetes: They will be chronic diseases.
Other doctors are optimistic that some cancers can still be eradicated.
We are curing cancers, even in a very advanced stage, ever more often than we were, Nelson said. Theres a huge amount of hope that we finally understand enough about how the immune system works that were going to be able to use it to control and eradicate these cancers more effectively.
At the American Cancer Societys anniversary celebration in May, CEO Dr. John R. Seffrin said he is ready to put the society out of business.
Were determined to make this cancers last century, he said.