Amid raging anti-war protests that bedeviled two presidential administrations, snoops at the National Security Agency also tapped the overseas communications of Martin Luther King Jr., Muhammad Ali and even Washington Post humor columnist Art Buchwald, according to newly declassified documents released Wednesday.
Oddly, another senator, Howard Baker, R-Tenn. an ardent supporter of the war also was put on the NSA watch list that authorized the interception of the surveillance targets overseas phone calls, telexes and cable traffic. The list, which grew to more than 1,600 names, was active from 1967 to 1973, covering the terms of Lyndon B. Johnson and Richard Nixon, the documents say.
Government spying and domestic eavesdropping on 1960s and 70s civil rights leaders, prominent war protesters and political opponents is well-known. But a new portion of a declassified NSA history, released by the National Security Archive at George Washington University, brings some context to more recent revelations about the agencys monitoring of Americans communications.
Basically, its been going on for a while.
In 1967, the country appeared to be going up in flames, the NSA internal history notes. Johnson wanted to find out whether the domestic antiwar movement was receiving help from abroad, the document says.
The CIA and Army initially were involved in checking into the presidents concerns, and the FBI contributed names for the list. The eavesdropping job went to the NSA, which officially dubbed the program Minaret in 1969.
The documents part of a four-volume internal NSA history provide just seven names on the list: King and fellow civil rights leader Whitney Young, head of the Urban League; heavyweight boxing champion Ali, who famously refused to be drafted; Frank Church and Baker, both influential legislators; Buchwald; and New York Times columnist Tom Wicker.
It is likely that presidential paranoia put Church, a moderate critic of the Vietnam War, on the NSA watch list.
Church, a senior member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and a staunch ally of Johnsons, had voted for the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which the president used to justify the commitment of U.S. military forces in Vietnam.
In the years that followed, however, Church became increasingly critical of the Vietnam War, believing that it was virtually unwinnable. His criticisms stung Johnson, and White House staffers described Churchs views as irresponsible.
Johnson even went so far as to suggest privately that Church and the other critics of his Vietnam policies in the Senate were under Moscows influence because some of them had met informally with Soviet diplomats.
By the time Nixon moved into the Oval Office in January 1969, Church was a committed opponent of the war, and most of his fellow Democrats in the Senate and even a significant number of Republicans had come to share his views.
I have no idea why they went after Tom Wicker and Artie Buchwald, said Matthew Aid, an intelligence historian who specializes in the NSA. Since when did journalists become legitimate intelligence targets?
An NSA lawyer who later reviewed the Minaret program stated that the people involved seemed to understand that the operation was disreputable if not outright illegal, the account says.
Buchwald, who died in 2007, wrote some scathing columns about the Vietnam War, said Aid and William Burr, an analyst with the archive.
In an article in Foreign Policy posted Wednesday, they linked to one column in which Buchwald noted a Post story saying it cost $332,000 to kill an enemy soldier in Vietnam. Buchwald argued that it would be cheaper and more cost-effective to offer Viet Cong defectors a $25,000 home, a color TV, education for their children, and a country club membership, they noted.
Maybe Nixon didnt like his satire, but why did they put him on an NSA watch list? Aid said Wednesday. If they didnt like his column, they could have TPd his lawn.
But Buchwald, who had complained because he never made Nixons Enemies List, would have been pleased. At least he made the NSA list.
Foreign Policy magazine contributed.